Female partner selection
Understanding female sexuality and mate choice is central to evolutionary scenarios of human social systems. Studies of female sexuality conducted by sex researchers in the United States since indicate that human females in general are concerned with their sexual well-being and are capable of sexual response parallel to that of males. Across cultures in general and in western societies in particular, females engage in extramarital affairs regularly, regardless of punishment by males or social disapproval. Families are usually concerned with marriage arrangements only insofar as those arrangements are economically or politically advantageous, but females most often have a voice in arranged marriages. Although marriage for females is often compromised by male or family reproductive interests which may not in fact differ from female interests , females appear to exercise their sexuality with more freedom than has previously been suggested. Notions of human females as pawns in the male reproductive game, or as traders of sex for male services, should be dispelled.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How To Choose A Partner Wisely
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Jordan Peterson Brilliantly Explains Sexual SelectionContent:
- New evidence that humans choose their partners through assortative mating
- Mate choice
- Mating Systems in Sexual Animals
- Direct selection on male attractiveness and female preference fails to produce a response
- The evolution of female sexuality and mate selection in humans
- Website access code
- Sexual Selection
- Real difference between how men, women choose partners
New evidence that humans choose their partners through assortative mating
All rights reserved. Richard O. Much of your book focuses on the sex lives of birds. Take us into the bizarre world of duck sex —and explain why, despite the violence visited upon them, female ducks actually come out on top. Ducks are different from most birds in the fact that male ducks have a penis, analogous with the mammalian or human penis.
And the fact that ducks still have a penis allows them to force copulation in ways that are unavailable to other birds. Unpaired males will attempt to force copulation during the egg-laying season. There are even socially organized groups of males pursuing females to force copulation. This is really physically harmful for the female ducks.
They are stressed out. They fly away, dive, and do everything they can to avoid it. Sometimes they even drown because ducks often copulate in the water. Patricia Brennan and I, and other colleagues, started studying this about 10 years ago. We were interested both in how the very large penis of the duck functions and how that is related to this violent sexual coercion. What we discovered was that some duck species evolved ribbed and even thorny penises.
Very bizarre stuff! Co-evolving with that are a series of innovations in vaginal structures that include dead ends, cul-de-sacs, or spirals.
The male penis is counterclockwise coiled, and the female vagina in species with large penises is clockwise coiled. This is confirmed by genetic evidence. When forced copulation is as high as 50 percent, only percent of the offspring are from extra-pair males, or forced copulation.
That means these ducks have a 98 percent effective contraceptive device in their bodies! The females are still incurring all the risk and damage of resistance. But, in the face of violence, they are maintaining control over who is fertilizing their eggs. I assume an enterprising intern or journalist at one of these websites found our National Science Foundation grant to do research on duck penises and turned it into news. Suddenly, we were being discussed on Fox News by Sean Hannity and his colleagues, and across the media.
We had good defense from other folks in the media, but people were shocked to discover that their tax dollars were going to study the evolution of duck genitalia. We think of natural selection as the tooth and claw survival of the fittest.
When Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species he had no theory of genetics. He also had no theory or, at least, delayed a proposal about the evolution of human beings. He went back to Down House , cogitated for a decade or more and came up with a second book, Descent of Man, in At this point he was already world-famous for the idea of natural selection and so this new book caused a huge stir.
He knew lots of people were sympathetic, but he knew that he was going to be working with very touchy subjects: human origins, human sexuality, and sexuality in general. He wrote a very long and granular book, with lots of nitty-gritty detail, which proposed sexual selection as an independent mechanism of evolution. It had two components.
One was competition within one sex, for control or access to the other sex, usually male competition. The other was choice of mates by the other sex, which could be female choice, mutual mate choice, or male mate choice, depending on the species.
His idea that male competition, in particular, was a force in evolution, was a great sell in Victorian England. The other idea, of mate choice—and female mate choice in particular—was a bomb. The other was the notion of female willfulness: The idea of females choosing mates on the basis of sensory information, in a licentious way, was very threatening! Some of the original criticism of the idea even attacked the concept as a sign of moral corruption.
One of the key assertions you make is that the struggle for female sexual autonomy—and pleasure—played a critical role in the evolution of humanity. Can you explain that idea? He thought animals choose their mates because of the pleasure they have in observing and selecting them, and that was an explicit explanation for why ornaments in nature are beautiful. In bowerbirds , for example, females have used choice preferences to make males less aggressive and more amenable.
Female bowerbirds do all the work: They build the nest, lay the eggs, care for the young. But they need to choose a mate. They do so based on the quality and beauty of a bower. Males build a bower, which is like a seduction theater where courtship takes place. In addition, the male goes out and finds a bunch of beautiful things, like flowers or butterflies or white stones, and makes a big array of interesting stuff.
When the female comes to visit, the architecture of the bower is attractive, but also protective. It allows her a refuge so that she can get intimately close to the male and watch him strut his stuff while being protected from being forcibly copulated by the male. She sits between the walls looking forward at him and his stuff. If he wants to copulate, he has to go around the bower to the back and mount her. You also suggest that female mate preferences changed male bodies—and even maleness itself.
This is shown in bowerbirds: Females receive dramatic and even violent displays because those displays are stimulating and because the females can keep their autonomy intact. That applies perfectly well to humans, as well. There has been very little role for the concept of mate choice—particularly female mate choice—in the evolution of humans.
Having done all this work on birds I became intrigued how some of these ideas about mate choice and sexual autonomy were providing fascinating and interesting explanations for the origin of social and sexual behavior in humans. Male primates, for the most part, have deadly weapons in their faces, in the form of large canine fangs that sharpen themselves on the pre-molars of the lower jaw as they chew.
Our immediate relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, have prominent canine teeth in the males, which females lack. The question is: Under what conditions did human males give up these weapons? The proposal is that, taking a lesson from bowerbirds, human mate choice may have preceded in a similar way.
By making weapons like fangs unsexy, females could expand their capacity to get mates they like. The male club-winged manakin makes these harmonic sounds through stridulation, rather like a cricket. One secondary wing feather rubs its bent tip against the bumps on the swollen tip of the neighboring feather, a bit like a bow running over a violin string.
That mechanical interaction makes the thick feather ring with the sound, audible at yards away. About 1,, cycles per second. My former student at Cornell, Kim Bostwick , showed that, in order to make those sounds, the wing bones of the male are enormous, particularly the trailing bone of the hind wing, where the wing feathers are attached. Even T-Rex has a hollow ulna bone.
In order to make sounds, the wing bones of the male manakin have been transformed into a structure serving both flight, as in all birds, but also attracting a mate—to sing a song. They are not solid, but they are times wider than wing bones of closely related species of manakin.
The whole species has become less fit for survival because of this aesthetic elaboration. If you adopt the aesthetic, Darwinian view of nature, the beauty of bird song and plumage is the result of 10, different standards of beauty evolving over this complicated history of mate choice. Simon Worrall curates Book Talk. Follow him on Twitter or at simonworrallauthor. By Simon Worrall. Charles Darwin connected "impracticable beauty" to mate selection.
Kinkiest Courtships of the Animal Kingdom These are some of the most interesting mating rituals in the animal kingdom. This interview was edited for length and clarity.
January 13, A team of Australian researchers have published a new paper that argues people choose their life partners through a form of assortative mating, which is having a distinct impact on the evolution of the human genome. It is an accepted wisdom that people will eventual pair off and marry someone who is very similar to themselves — similar levels of education, physical attractiveness, height, weight etc. The new study, published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour suggests that this really isn't an accident, that an educated person won't marry another educated person due to the fact they socialise with educated people, but because they actively seek them out.
Choosing a mate is likely one of the most influential decisions any individual makes because it heavily influences their fitness. Going back all the way to the seminal work by Darwin , , , we mostly think of females as choosing mates, whereas males compete over mating opportunities with females. This view is very well supported, but somewhat incomplete. As Darwin struggled to find a good explanation for the existence of ornamental traits in males, he proposed Sexual Selection and along with that theory he suggested 2 mechanisms that could lead to and maintain such extreme traits: Female Choice and Male Competition. Historically, male competition was quickly accepted, whereas acceptance of female choice was delayed until much later, coinciding with the rise of modern feminism Zuk
Mating Systems in Sexual Animals
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Charles Darwin proposed that all living species were derived from common ancestors. The primary mechanism he proposed to explain this fact was natural selection: that is, that organisms better adapted to their environment would benefit from higher rates of survival than those less well equipped to do so. However he noted that there were many examples of elaborate, and apparently non-adaptive, sexual traits that would clearly not aid in the survival of their bearers. He suggested that such traits might evolve if they are sexually selected, that is if they increase the individual's reproductive success, even at the expense of their survival Darwin Darwin noted that sexual selection depends on the struggle between males to access females. He recognized two mechanisms of sexual selection: intrasexual selection, or competition between members of the same sex usually males for access to mates, and intersexual selection, where members of one sex usually females choose members of the opposite sex. The idea of cumbersome traits evolving to aid males in competition during aggressive encounters was readily accepted by scientists shortly after Darwin's publication. However, the idea of female mate choice was received with ridicule, and was not seriously reconsidered until nearly 80 years later Cronin In the 40 years since, there has been much progress in our understanding of how sexual selection operates.
Direct selection on male attractiveness and female preference fails to produce a response
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. A mating system describes how males and females pair when choosing a mate. Males and females differ greatly in the investment each makes to reproduce, and may therefore approach mating with differing strategies. To study these differences, scientists observe mating systems and describe how males and females come together.
All rights reserved. Richard O. Much of your book focuses on the sex lives of birds. Take us into the bizarre world of duck sex —and explain why, despite the violence visited upon them, female ducks actually come out on top.
The evolution of female sexuality and mate selection in humans
Mate choice is one of the primary mechanisms under which evolution can occur. The evaluation will then incur a response of some sort. These mechanisms are a part of evolutionary change because they operate in a way that causes the qualities that are desired in a mate to be more frequently passed on to each generation over time. For example, if female peacocks desire mates who have a colourful plumage, then this trait will increase in frequency over time as male peacocks with a colourful plumage will have more reproductive success. Mate choice is one of two components of sexual selection , the other being intrasexual selection. Ideas on sexual selection were first introduced in , by Charles Darwin , then expanded on by Ronald Fisher in
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Бринкерхофф возмутился. - У нас ничего такого не случалось. - Вот. - Она едва заметно подмигнула. - В этом все и. - Мидж… - Доброй ночи, Чед. - Она направилась к двери.
- Ты уходишь.
Он в последний раз взглянул на Клушара. - Капля Росы. Вы уверены. Но Пьер Клушар провалился в глубокое забытье.
Умно, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор продолжал: - Несколько раз Танкадо публично называл имя своего партнера. North Dakota. Северная Дакота.
Real difference between how men, women choose partners
Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик. Сьюзан взглянула на ВР.
- Надо думать.
Даже во время учебы в колледже она старалась покупать самую лучшую обувь. Нельзя дотянуться до звезд, если чувствуешь себя ущемленной, - сказала как-то ее тетушка. - И если уж попала туда, куда стремилась, постарайся выглядеть на все сто. Сьюзан сладко потянулась и взялась за .
Я уполномочен заплатить вам за. На мгновение в комнате повисла тишина, затем Росио приоткрыла губы в хитрой улыбке. - Ну видите, все не так страшно, правда? - Она села в кресло и скрестила ноги. - И сколько вы заплатите. Вздох облегчения вырвался из груди Беккера. Он сразу же перешел к делу: - Я могу заплатить вам семьсот пятьдесят тысяч песет. Пять тысяч американских долларов.
Как старшему криптографу ей полагался терминал с самым лучшим обзором. Он был установлен на задней стороне компьютерного кольца и обращен в сторону шифровалки.
Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки.