Dating of the book of daniel
The Book of Daniel contains the only apocalypse in the Hebrew Bible. It is comprised of twelve chapters: 1—6, which are a series of six court tales describing the life of Daniel and his three friends, Judean exiles to the Babylonian court in the 6th century bce , and 7—12, which are a series of four apocalyptic visions, purportedly by this same Daniel. The stories seem to be earlier than the visions, which reflect anguish under the persecution of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Seleucid king who oppressed Judea from — bce. Especially the last chapters employ the coded language of apocalyptic literature and thus interpret historical figures symbolically without giving their actual names.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Dating Daniel: Prophecy or History?
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Book of Daniel
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Ben Sira. Chapter 11 Antiochus Ephiphanes? Concerning the Kings mentioned or referred to in the book of Daniel. Darius the Mede. Persian Kings. According to the data the book itself provides, chapter one starts c.
The book is arranged in two parts, chapters , which contain historical records, and chapters which contain visions that Daniel personally received. Each part has its chapters arranged chronologically. The book is written in Hebrew and Aramaic.
The Aramaic section is from b to the end of chapter 7. Some modern scholars have embraced an idea similar to that first put forward by Porphyry a neo-Platonist in his work Against Christians c. The idea being that Daniel must have been written not earlier than c. Some modern scholars claim that at c. Porphyry, however, claimed that all the events described in ff refer to Antiochus Epiphenes 4 th and since he rejected predictive prophecy he concluded that this was the point in history when the book was written.
In other words, the writer of Daniel was looking back on events that already happened. His thesis was refuted and rejected by the scholars of his day and then was burned. The records we have of his thesis come from excerpts that were quoted by his opponents. Next, in , S. Driver wrote a famous but misleading commentary on Daniel, supporting the same theory.
Since then, many scholars have accepted the Maccabean theory without much question. In the work that follows I will discuss the dating of the book of Daniel from a scholarly standpoint without any personal bias against predictive prophecy. It is my view that the same rules that apply to the dating of all ancient documents should also be applied to Daniel.
Namely, examining and dating the language s used in the document. One must also review ancient witnesses that testify to when the book was written. Accuracy of the book itself in describing the events of a period.
The claims the book itself may make about its dating and whether those claims seem legitimate. Clues within the text that either support or betray its legitimacy, etc. Firstly the language of the book is Hebrew with an Aramaic section between b and The fact that the book is composed in the two languages gives weight to the late 6 th century date.
The author may have considered it so important to put forward the exact facts and words of the various kings that he refused to translate them into his native language. Further more the book of Daniel would not vacillate between Hebrew and Aramaic if it was written in the Hellenistic period.
For the Apocryphal books of the Hellenistic period come down to us in Greek. Scholars widely agree that the Hebrew sections were indeed written originally in Hebrew. When the Israelites officially canonized the scriptures of the Hebrew Bible in the first century AD, it was insisted that only books originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic would be accepted and books originally written in Greek were deliberately rejected.
In other words, the Hebrew of Daniel is older than that of Chronicles or Ezra. However he believes that Daniel and Esther was a later work in which the author used older Hebrew even though he wrote much later than Chronicles p Elsewhere he calls the Hebrew sections an attempt to imitate pre-exilic Biblical Hebrew p , yet he fails to provide any evidence for this theory.
It is possible that the Hebrew might allow a BC date but it fits much better with a 4 th to 6 th century date due to foreign loan words found in the Hebrew sections. It is generally agreed that the Hebrew appears to be slightly later than the Aramaic.
But it is also likely that the Hebrew was updated during scribal copying. However it is much less likely that the Aramaic section would be updated since it contains quotations of foreign kings.
The occurrence of Old Persian words in the text, that were unknown in the Hellenistic period, requires a date much earlier than BC. See below under Persian Loan Words. The Hebrew is in agreement with what one would expect from the reign of Cyrus the Great and therefore fits with the c. More important in dating the Hebrew sections are the loan words found in the Hebrew sections, the connection of the Hebrew to the Aramaic section and other non-linguistic indicators found within the Hebrew sections.
These all point to a early date and will be discussed below. The Aramaic clearly belongs to the time period the book itself claims. Townsley 22 nd paragraph. Aramaic is generally classified as follows as recorded in Stefanovic p17 :. The finds at Qumran have shed a little light on the subject.
His work takes into account literary correlations, grammatical correlations and syntactical correlations to other ancient Aramaic finds. Perhaps most surprising is the similarities between DA and the Tell Fakhriyah inscription 9 th century. This inscription is both in Aramaic and Akkadian. Of the 95 different words found in it, 65 are also found in DA.
It must also be remembered that Daniel has been copied and recopied time and again allowing for updates in spelling and perhaps even changes in the wording itself. In comparison to this, the other ancient Assyrian texts we have are often inscriptions in stone and are not copies, thus they have been unaltered grammatically by the passing of time. Yet despite any changes introduced since the original writing, Daniel still resembles the Aramaic of the 5 th , 6 th and 7 th centuries.
Some would wonder as to why the Aramaic section continues into chapter 7 and if thus far why not into chapter 8. But I noted in , something very important. That is that someone else is recording Daniels words.
When we see the first person being used in Chapter 7, it is within the framework of a quotation. The same treatment of Daniel also occurs throughout the first part of the book through chapter 7, but from chapter 8 onward Daniel speaks in the first person, with the exception of Perhaps the Aramaic section of the book was intended for publication on a large scale and was also therefore written in the language of the Empire. But why use Old Aramaic if the book was written c.
Both sides also place the writing of Ezra in the 5 th century. If one wishes to date Daniel in BC then he must also date Ezra to this period, yet no respectable scholar is willing to do that. Four words in the Aramaic, which are apparently of Persian origin, are not attested to after the 5 th century BC.
Collins p19 footnote The use of these words weighs heavily in favor of a 6 th or 5 th century date. The Aramaic belongs to the period from the 9 th to 5 th centuries. Even supporters of a late date such as Collins in his introduction are forced to confess that the Aramaic is not consistent with a 2 nd century date and belongs to an earlier period.
Montgomery lists at least 12 words from Akkadian found in the Aramaic section of the books and 1 in the Hebrew section of the book. Montgomery, p These words indicate that the Aramaic and Hebrew belong to the Babylonian period and to the Mesopotamian region. The appearance of one Akkadian word in the Hebrew section is evidence although not proof that the Hebrew writer was dwelling in Mesopotamia at the time of writing.
Nor is it surprising to find some of these words used in sections that pertain to the kings of Babylon for Babylon together with their allies the Medes were dominating the Persians. In addition, Daniel may not have written down his account until the time of the Medo-Persian Empire when he himself was taken to their capital in Susa.
Some would wonder why this Israelite would be using Persian in his book, and how he would know it. The answer is -that Cyrus was a Persian, and Daniel being the gifted statesman and fast learner that he was Dan , , he would have to had learned Persian to retain his position Waltke, pg. Townsley 21 st paragraph. The use of Persian loan words, and these especially, indicates a Babylonian or Persian origin and not a Palestinian origin.
There are 3 words that are very likely of Greek origin in Daniel and following. This word and the second one I referred to also have variant spellings in a manuscript tradition from Qumran.
Another important fact is that already by BC scribal tradition as demonstrated at Qumran was already so strict that they refused to correct known mistakes hence the differences in spelling have been maintained.
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Video series Outside of the Pentateuch, no book of the OT has been subjected to as much scrutiny as the Book of Daniel. The detailed and accurate prophecies contained in that book have motivated many, Skeptic and professed believer alike, to subscribe to the theory of a late date of composition for Daniel in the time of the Maccabees. Most modern radical critics hold that the book was completed in its final form at that time, but some allow for parts of Daniel mainly chapters to have an earlier date prior to Some say the editor in the 2nd century used certain traditions to compose the final form of Daniel.
The second half of the book names as author a certain Daniel who, according to chapter 1, was exiled to Babylon. The language of the book—part of which is Aramaic — —probably indicates a date of composition later than the Babylonian Exile 6th century bc. Numerous inaccuracies connected with the exilic period no deportation occurred in bc ; Darius was a successor of Cyrus, not a predecessor; etc. Daniel, extolled for his upright character, is presented as a model for the persecuted community.
The Book of Daniel: The Problem of Dating
Beginning the Journey for new Christians. Wilson's Books Donations Sitemap Appendix 3. Ralph F. Any study of the dating of the Book of Daniel must begin with the dates imbedded within the text. Nearly every chapter is tied to some historical event, beginning in BC when Daniel and his friends were deported from Jerusalem to Babylon to serve in the court of Nebuchadnezzar the Great. In addition to the "court stories" in chapters , Daniel's visions are dated as follows:. Based on the internal dating, Daniel has been dated in the mid-sixth century BC by both Jews and Christians from the earliest times. The only exception to this was a pagan Neoplatonic philosopher named Porphyry of Tyre c.
When Was the Book of Daniel Written?
It is no accident that the three most attacked books of the Bible are also the most significant Genesis, Daniel, and Revelation. It is commonly known that if the foundation is faulty, the building will soon fall. This article will seek to refute the view that the Book of Daniel was written in the second century BC as many liberals claim and thus could not have been written by Daniel ca. This being the case, the issue of the date of Daniel will be addressed first. One of the arguments put forth which seems to indicate a late date second century BC for Daniel is its place in the canon.
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The Book of Daniel
Traditional scholarship holds that Daniel was written in the sixth century BC and is historically reliable, but many modern biblical scholars hold that Daniel was written in the second century BC and is pious fiction. Jesus ben Sirach Sir 44— 50 , 1 writing in approximately B. Half of Daniel was written in Aramaic, a language Jews spoke during the intertestamental period. Daniel 3 also includes three Greek words— suggesting that the book was written after Greek culture had invaded the Near East.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Dating the Book of Daniel
Recent scholarship has produced critics who labeled it as a fraudulent document that was forged by a second century B. However, the biblical evidence suggests that a historical Daniel who lived in the sixth century B. Through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the amazing prophecies he gave came to pass as God had shown him. Many conservative scholars are of the opinion that Daniel worshipper of God , the prophet, wrote the book that bears his name under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. In B.
Bible Home. Latest research is indicated by blue fonts. Copyright Please provide a link to this page when quoting. Foreign loan Words. Literary style. The 4 th Kingdom. Prophecy of the Destruction of the Second Temple.
The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BC biblical apocalypse combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology a portrayal of end times cosmic in scope and political in focus. The book's influence has resonated through later ages, from the Dead Sea Scrolls community and the authors of the gospels and Revelation , to various movements from the 2nd century to the Protestant Reformation and modern millennialist movements—on which it continues to have a profound influence. The Book of Daniel is divided between the court tales of chapters 1—6 and the apocalyptic visions of 7—12, and between the Hebrew of chapters 1 and 8—12 and the Aramaic of chapters 2—7. There is a clear chiasm a concentric literary structure in which the main point of a passage is placed in the centre and framed by parallel elements on either side in "ABBA" fashion in the chapter arrangement of the Aramaic section.
Мы опоздали, сэр. Мы идем ко дну. ГЛАВА 120 Шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности, тучный мужчина весом за центнер, стоял неподвижно, заложив руки за голову.
Коммандер. Стратмор даже не пошевелился. - Коммандер.
Створки давили на плечо с неимоверной силой.
- Так вы говорите на языке цивилизованного мира. - Да вроде бы, - смущенно проговорил Беккер. - Это не так важно, - горделиво заявил Клушар. - Мою колонку перепечатывают в Соединенных Штатах, у меня отличный английский.
Я принял решение. Мы вводим эту цитату. Сейчас. Джабба тяжко вздохнул. Он знал, что Фонтейн прав: у них нет иного выбора. Время на исходе.
Если бы возникла проблема, он тут же позвонил бы. Мидж долго молчала. Джабба услышал в трубке вздох - но не мог сказать, вздох ли это облегчения.