Male partner involvement in antenatal care
Globally, male involvement in maternal health care services remains a challenge to effective maternal health care accessibility and utilization. This study assessed male involvement in maternal health care services and associated factors in Anomabo in the Central Region of Ghana. Random sampling procedures were employed in selecting adult male respondents whose partners were pregnant or had given birth within twelve months preceding the study. The low male involvement in maternal health care services warrants interventions to improve the situation. Public health interventions should focus on designing messages to diffuse existing sociocultural perceptions and health care provider attitudes which influence male involvement in maternal health care services.
- A review on factor influencing the involvement of male partner in antenatal care in Nepal
- Involving male partners in maternity care in Burkina Faso: a randomized controlled trial
- Central Data Catalog
- Prevalence of male partners involvement in antenatal care visits – in Kyela district, Mbeya
- Male Involvement in Maternal Health Care at Anomabo, Central Region, Ghana
- Barriers to men’s involvement in antenatal and postnatal care in Butula, western Kenya
A review on factor influencing the involvement of male partner in antenatal care in Nepal
Metrics details. Despite of the call to involve men in antenatal care, their participation is not well understood. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. More than half Less than a quarter About Overall, more than half of respondents reported high involvement in antenatal care services. Health promotion is needed to empower men with essential information for meaningful involvement in antenatal care services.
Peer Review reports. This study was carried out to determine the extent to which male partners participate in the care of their spouses during pregnancy and the factors influencing their participation. Data were collected from men through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Therefore, increasing community education and sensitization as well as creating couple-friendly reproductive health services could increase male participation in pregnancy care.
Antenatal care ANC is important for the health of the mother and the development of foetus because it links the woman and her family with the health care system which may increase the chance of using a skilled attendant atbirth and contributes to good health through the life cycle [ 1 ].
Recent scholars have raised the point that many men may not be prepared to participate in antenatal care [ 17 ] and that ANCsettings create barriersfor male involvement [ 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. Inadequate male involvement in ANC can lead to persistent increases in maternal morbidity and mortality [ 23 ], because men hold the decision making power on where and when women should seek health care services, particularly in African settings [ 5 , 10 , 24 ].
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest maternal mortality ratio of about maternal deaths per , live births [ 25 ]. Although Tanzania has madeprogress in reducing MMR, the rate was far from the target of the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing MMR to per , live births by [ 26 ]. As the Millennium Development Goals have now changed to Sustainable Development Goals [ 27 ], more efforts are needed to achieve the target of reducing MMR to less than 70 per , live births by [ 28 ].
Causes of maternal deaths have been well studied [ 29 ]. In Africa, South of Sahara these causes can be closely linked with low female socio-economic status as well as lack of decision making opportunity among women about their health care and over household budget [ 30 ]. The delay in reaching a health care facility may be associated with a lack of money for transport as well as other health care related costs in which women depend on a male partner.
Awareness among men on pregnancy related problemsand their complicationsis very low [ 33 ], this may consequently limit their scope of involvement in maternal care. The study was conducted in Dodoma Region, Central Tanzania. The area was selected because it is a lower resource region and represents cultural aspects of male dominance and women dis-empowerment and that limited studies have addressed this phenomenon to date.
Four Districts namely, Kondoa, Kongwa, Chamwino and Dodoma Municipality were purposively selected as regional representative of the distinctive characteristics of each district regarding male involvement.
The study design was a quantitative cross-sectional survey. The men must have resided with their spouse together in the same household and their partners must have had a second or more pregnancy at the time of data collection.
The data were collected from June to November The minimum sample size was respondents. Respondents were recruited into the study through a household survey. A multistage sampling technique was used for selecting the sample units.
In the first step, the four districts werepurposively selected out of seven districts. In the second step, two wards sub divisions were randomly chosenfrom each district using a table of random numbers to make a total of eight wards. In each selected villages and streets, eligible households were chosen to participate in the study which makes a total of households.
Systematic sampling technique with the starting point obtained using a table of random number was used to select the houses in each village or street. The sampling interval of three was used to pick the house. The first house to be interviewed was randomly selected by randomly pointing in the random number table while eyes closed so as to obtain the starting number.
From the first house, every third house was selected till sample size was obtained. The direction of movement was determined by random selection. In the household if a man had more than one partner with a child born within the past two years, the interview was conducted based on the information from the youngest child. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers, it consisted of both open and close ended questions and it was divided into two parts.
The first part captured information on household social demographic variables. The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into Swahili. To ensure accuracy in the translation, the questionnaire was back translated into English by two independent nursing officers who were familiar with ANC in Dodoma.
The questionnaire was administered by eight trained research assistants who were community development workers from the four Districts involved in the study. The variable physical support was measured by asking the respondents the following question: - How did you share household work with your partner compared to the times when she is not pregnant?
The responses were as follows; 1 the same work 2 more than usual and 3 not at all. Those who answered options 1, 2 were regarded as having provided physical support to their partners while option 3 was regarded as no physical support to their partners.
A total score was calculated by adding the score of each activity reported to be performed by a respondent. The level of involvement was classified as follows: a score of zero to two was regarded as a low level of involvement, a score of three to four as high level of involvement.
Previous studies applied this approach of categorization [ 38 , 39 ]. Attitudes were measured by asking the respondentsthe following question: How do you find the attitude of health workers towards men who accompany their wives to hospital to seek care? The question had two options:1 They attend to us very well and friendly and 2 They are unfriendly. Those who answered option one had a positive attitude and number two were regarded as having a negative attitude. Univariate analysis was performed to obtain frequency and percentage for the demographic variables and the level of involvement in different activities of antenatal care.
Although the estimated sample size for this study was respondents, during conducting of the survey, a total of the married men participated in the study. A higher response rate helps the researcher to be sure that the findings are representative and promote confidence in the results [ 40 ]. It also helps in controlling unforeseeable confounders. The number of children per respondent ranged from one to twenty-two children. The majority The majority of respondents A total of Most, of the respondents Findings show that More than half of respondents However, less than a quarter of men Belonging to Gogo ethnic group was associated with high level of involvement in ANC Christian menhad a higher level of involvement There was little difference in the level of involvement between marriage types monogamous vs polygamous as well as between arranged or forced marriage, these differenceswerenot statistically significant.
Men who reported to spend less than one hour to receive health services had a higher level of involvement Low level of involvement in ANC was more prevalent Variables which showed a significant relationship with male involvement after chi-square analysis were added in a multivariate model to estimate their independent association.
Thereby, controlling for confounding variables including occupation, ethnicity, religion, waiting time, access to information, number of children, distance to the health care facility and perceived attitude of care providers.
Generally, more than half The level of involvement in this study is higher than findings from other studies [ 6 , 41 ]. The difference observed could be due to a difference in methods employed to construct the involvement level as well as study setting. For example, previous studies were hospital based while the current study was community based.
It is more likely that, exposure to ANC information has a great potential in addressing misconceptions and myths that hinders men from being involved in maternal care. Other scholars suggested that men who know the danger signs of pregnancy are more likely to act fast to save the lives of their wives when complications arise [ 44 ]. By and large, more than half This is consistent with previous studies in Uganda and Nigeria where the proportion of male involvement in ANC was Shared cultural values on gender roles among African societies could explain the observed similarities in these findings [ 14 , 15 , 16 ].
In this study more than half of respondents who accompanied their partners to an ANC visit reported to spend more than one hour in health care facility waiting for services.
This is likely to discourage men from coming to ANC in subsequent visits. Studies done in other parts of Africa show that the longer the time spent waiting for services, the less the chances are for men to be involved in ANC services [ 4 , 47 , 48 ].
Time spent in accompanying spouses to ANC services could have more implications to male involvement in ANC among employed men. Men who are in the paid workforce, are often not in a position to spend virtually the entire day participating in ANC services [ 41 ].
During ANC, pregnant women and their partners are given health education. This may result in a greater outcome on maternal health behaviors compared to when women receive this education alone [ 5 ]. It is understood that education and health services provided during the antenatal period have the potential to reduce pregnancy and delivery complications and improve birth outcomes [ 49 ].
Thus if men and women miss this opportunity during ANC, it is not surprising that Sustainable Development Goal number three is not achieved. Participants who perceived positive attitude of providers had low odds of involvement compared with those who had a negative perception. This finding was not expected but could be explained in terms of the protective nature of men towards their partners whereby those who had a negative perception may accompany their partners as a way of protecting them from providers with a negative attitude.
This study found that the majority of men The reason for this variation could be due to the effect of cultural differences and limited exposure to safe motherhood initiative programs. This could further explain the high proportion Previous studies have reported low proportion of men offering such support to their partners [ 7 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ].
Studies conducted in Nigeria and Cameroon had similar findings [ 15 , 47 ].
Involving male partners in maternity care in Burkina Faso: a randomized controlled trial
About the Author s. The Author s. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Their involvement is critical in the delivery and uptake of maternal healthcare services and improving maternal and child health outcomes. Methods: A qualitative study design, which is exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature, was used.
Correspondence to Marina AS Daniele email: marina. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Ending preventable maternal and perinatal mortality necessarily involves engaging with families and communities. In the last few decades, strategies promoting male involvement in reproductive health services have received increasing attention, such as endorsement by the World Health Organization.
Central Data Catalog
However, studies have shown their involvement in antenatal care ANC and postnatal care PNC is relatively low owing to several factors. A mixed methods study design, descriptive in nature, was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 96 men were selected to participate in the surveys. Also, four focus group discussions and four key informant interviews were conducted. The lack of services targeting men, provider attitude, non-invitation to the clinic, time spent at the clinic and lack of privacy at the clinics were key facility-based barriers. Awareness creation among men on ANC and PNC services and creating a client-friendly environment at the clinics is key in enhancing their involvement. Antenatal care ANC and postnatal care PNC have been used for a long time as a strategy for reducing maternal and infant mortality in the promotion of safe deliveries and proper maternal and child health care. Previous studies have reported that male involvement in these services has been hindered by several factors despite the fact that they are key stakeholders in maternal and child health services.
Prevalence of male partners involvement in antenatal care visits – in Kyela district, Mbeya
Dedih Suandi, Pauline Williams, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Does involving male partners in antenatal care improve healthcare utilisation? Although in most low- and middle-income countries LMICs men are decision makers and control the household budget, their involvement in maternity care is limited. Reports from high-income countries indicate a beneficial effect of involving men in antenatal and delivery care on birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether similar effects are observed in LMICs.
Metrics details. Male partner participation in antenatal care ANC is important and contributes to better maternal and neonatal birth outcomes. Studies have been conducted to explore male participation in ANC and barriers to participation. However, these studies have been conducted in the general population and not the military settings, which are gendered institutions.
Male Involvement in Maternal Health Care at Anomabo, Central Region, Ghana
July 1, Journal article Open Access. Sharmila Pokharel. Abstract : Male involvement in antenatal care ANC is an operative approach for improving maternal health results. Though women are sole child producers, the participation of men in financial support and other decision making cannot be out looked.
Metrics details. Despite of the call to involve men in antenatal care, their participation is not well understood. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. More than half Less than a quarter
Barriers to men’s involvement in antenatal and postnatal care in Butula, western Kenya
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